Understanding the Neurodynamical Complexities Reviewed by Momizat on . Understanding the Neurodynamical Complexities of meditative process from the EEG signal Principal Investigator : Dr. N. Pradhan, Deptt. of Psychopharmacology, O Understanding the Neurodynamical Complexities of meditative process from the EEG signal Principal Investigator : Dr. N. Pradhan, Deptt. of Psychopharmacology, O Rating: 0
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Understanding the Neurodynamical Complexities

Understanding the Neurodynamical Complexities of meditative process from the EEG signal

Principal Investigator : Dr. N. Pradhan, Deptt. of Psychopharmacology,

Objective:

1. To evaluate the non-linear dynamical parameters of the EEG time series in terms of its correlation dimension (D2), fractal dimension (Dl) and phase space trajectory behavior during resting states of eyes-open and eyes-closed. Topographic brain mapping and compressed spectral array of multichannel EEG are to be carried out to quantitate the brain activities in various bands of EEG as a standard procedure.

2. To evaluate the above dynamical parameters in the same individual during meditation and post-meditative periods.

3. The dynamical parameters are to be analysed in order to understand the nature of EEG during resting states and in meditation and to determine whether the EEG generated in these states is the underlying stochastic process or a chaotic process. The nature and the degrees of freedom of microscopic brain functions are to be derived from the results.

4. Modelling of neurobiological functions in the meditative process.

Methodology: The project encompasses analyses of the brain activities (EEG signals) in waking states (eyes-open and eyes-closed) and then in the meditative and post-meditative phases with the application of nonlinear dynamical methods to time series data.

The nature of brain dynamics during meditation is to be inferred with reference to premeditative state and in the context of neurodynamical variability in normal healthy subjects. The subjects of the study include yogic subjects (8-10 X 5 schools of yoga) and age-matched normal individuals in the age range of 16-60 years. The EEG is recorded in resting eyes-open condition for 5 minutes and in eyes-closed condition for 5 minutes for all subjects. In meditative subjects, the EEG is recorded for

duration of 30-40 minutes during which time the subjects meditate. Post-meditation EEG is obtained for about 10 minutes. The neurodynamics of meditative process is then explored using the experimental time series data.

The analysis aims to understand pertinent brain processes brought about by the state of meditation from the dimensional complicity measure of brain activities in this state. Using multi-channel EEG time series, the phase-space attractor is reconstructed where a single point determines state of the whole system (brain) at that instant of time, in relation to pre-meditation, meditation and post-meditation states in this study.

The nature of the brain dynamic is then established from the topological or geometrical property of this attractor, which gives information about the deterministic character of the dynamics of the underlying system. This topological entity portrays the essential character of the dynamics of the brain and is characterized by a numerical value of its correlation dimension (D2) or fractal dimension (D1). In addition to Dl and D2 measures, the analysis of Lyapunov exponent of the phase-space trajectory (?1) which is the characteristics of chaos in the brain has been added.

In this case, the variables that describe the global or averaged property of the system are multichannel EEG time series, which are obtained from EEG recordings of meditation subjects. The digital EEG is sampled at regular time intervals and the mean electrical activity of cerebral cortex from specific locations of the scalp reflects behavior of underlying neuronal ensembles.

Observation The study concluded that the Meditation produces
Conclusion: significant changes in the brain state and these are more pronounced in experienced meditators than the novice is. In experienced meditators, simple relaxed state without meditation has high degrees of synchrony across brain regions. During meditation, there occurs a reduction in chaotic dimensional complexity.

The brain appears more homogenous during meditation. The diverse fragmented activities and independence of subsystems in the resting state of the brain are reduced during meditation. In addition, there appears to be a reduced cross talk across neural circuits. It seems, as if the infinite number of independent neuronal oscillators are gradually drawn into a single driving force by meditation.

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