Peach Reviewed by Momizat on . The peach (Prunus persica) is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Shan mountains The peach (Prunus persica) is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Shan mountains Rating: 0
You Are Here: Home » Wellness » Diet » Peach

Peach

The peach (Prunus persica) is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Shan mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated.[3] It bears an edible juicy fruit called a peach or a nectarine. The specific epithet persica refers to its widespread cultivation in Persia, whence it was transplanted to Europe. It belongs to the genus Prunus which includes the cherry, apricot, almond and plum, in the rose family.

The peach is classified with the almond in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by the corrugated seed shell. Peach and nectarines are the same species, even though they are regarded commercially as different fruits. In contrast to peaches, whose fruits present the characteristic fuzz on the skin, nectarines are characterized by the absence of fruit-skin trichomes (fuzz-less fruit); genetic studies suggest nectarines are produced due to a recessive allele, whereas peaches are produced from a dominant allele for fuzzyskin.

The People’s Republic of China is the world’s largest producer of peaches.

History[edit]

Although its botanical name Prunus persica refers to Persia (present Iran) from where it came to Europe,genetic studies suggest peaches originated in China,[9] where they have been cultivated since the early days of Chinese culture, circa 2000 BC.[10][11] Peaches were mentioned in Chinese writings as far back as the 10th century BC and were a favoured fruit of kings and emperors. The history of cultivation of peaches in China has been extensively reviewed citing numerous original manuscripts dating back to 1100 BC.

The peach was brought to India and Western Asia in ancient times.[13] Peach cultivation also went from China, through Persia, and reached Greece by 300 BC.[11] Alexander the Great introduced the fruit into Europe after he conquered the Persians.[13] Peaches were well known to the Romans in first century AD, and were cultivated widely in Emilia-Romagna.

Peach trees are portrayed in the wall paintings of the towns destroyed by the Vesuvius eruption of 79 AD, while the oldest known artistic representations of the fruit are in the two fragments of wall paintings, dated back to the 1st century AD, in Herculaneum, now preserved in the National Archaeological Museum in Naples.[14] The peach was brought to the Americas by Spanish explorers in the 16th century, and eventually made it to England and France in the 17th century, where it was a prized and expensive treat.

The horticulturist George Minifie supposedly brought the first peaches from England to its North American colonies in the early 17th century, planting them at his Estate of Buckland in Virginia.[15] Although Thomas Jefferson had peach trees at Monticello, United States farmers did not begin commercial production until the 19th century in Maryland, Delaware, Georgia and finally Virginia. In April 2010, an International Consortium, the International Peach Genome Initiative (IPGI), that include researchers from USA, Italy, Chile, Spain and France announced they had sequenced the peach tree genome (doubled haploid Lovell).

Recently, IPGI published the peach genome sequence and related analyses. The peach genome sequence is composed of 227 millions of nucleotides arranged in 8 pseudomolecules representing the 8 peach chromosomes (2n = 16). In addition, a total of 27,852 protein-coding genes and 28,689 protein-coding transcripts were predicted. Particular emphasis in this study is reserved to the analysis of the genetic diversity in peach germplasm and how it was shaped by human activities such as domestication and breeding.

Major historical bottlenecks were individuated, one related to the putative original domestication that is supposed to have taken place in China about 4,000–5,000 years ago, the second is related to the western germplasm and is due to the early dissemination of peach in Europe from China and to the more recent breeding activities in US and Europe. These bottlenecks highlighted the strong reduction of genetic diversity associated with domestication and breeding activities.

 

source wikipedia

About The Author

Number of Entries : 120

Leave a Comment

Copyright © 2014herbal360. All rights reserved.

Scroll to top