Unani herbal drug Parsiaoshan – an introduction Reviewed by Momizat on . Herbal 360 Parsiaoshan, a Unani drug, is known for its antipyretic, demulcent, expectorant, diuretic, emmenagogue, desiccant and resolvent actions. It is used i Herbal 360 Parsiaoshan, a Unani drug, is known for its antipyretic, demulcent, expectorant, diuretic, emmenagogue, desiccant and resolvent actions. It is used i Rating: 0
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Unani herbal drug Parsiaoshan – an introduction

Unani herbal drug Parsiaoshan – an introduction

Herbal 360

Parsiaoshan, a Unani drug, is known for its antipyretic, demulcent, expectorant, diuretic, emmenagogue, desiccant and resolvent actions. It is used in all types of fevers, be it catarrh, coryza, asthma, anuria, dysuria and amenorrhoea. Decoction of Parsiaoshan is used to get rid of dandruff.

Attributed to the plant Adiantum capillus-veneris, the drug is identified as Adiantum venustum since use of various other species of Adiantum, particularly A. venustum is common. Known as ‘Hansraj’, most of the drugs available in the market belong to this plant with great medicinal properties. It has remarkable similarity with those described for the drug ‘Parsiaoshan’.

The plant has been reported as anodyne in bronchitis; diuretic and emmenagogue; fronds reported to be astringent, aromatic, emetic in large doses, tonic, febrifuge, expectorant; and deobstruent; used in the treatment of biliousness, inflammatory diseases of the chest, ophthalmia, hydrophobia, colds and headache; also as hair tonic. The plant A.venustum is known to have remarkable anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-cancerous properties.

These medicinal properties prove its therapeutic potential. Parsiaoshan consists of dried aerial ingredients derived from diverse sources going by the descriptions as also comparing with live plant. Dried fronds with smooth, shining, dark brown, glabrous petioles; 3-4 pinnate (Fig. 1) contains in the drug.

The segments (pinnae) are bright green, shortly petiolulate, glabrous, 6-9 mm long and 3-5 mm broad in the middle. The blade has prominent non reticulate branching venation; not cleft or lobed (Fig.2). The upper margin is rounded, dentate while it is cuneate below. Fertile segments bear linear, rather large sori, formed by the revolute upper margins of the pinnae (Fig.3). It gives a slight aromatic odour and has no distinguishable taste.Petiole
A cross-section of the petiole shows almost a circular outline with a small notch on one side (Fig.6). The outer most tissue is a single layered epidermis, covered with a smooth thin cuticle and composed of dark coloured thick walled parenchyma; followed by 3-4 seriate layer of sclerenchyma, composed of dark coloured thick walled fibres.

This is followed by a fairly large compact zone of cortex, consisting of parenchymatous cells having abundant starch grains and showing little or no inter-cellular spaces (Fig.7). A single stele, enclosed within a layer of endodermis and pericycle occupies the centre (Fig.8).

The xylem consisting of tracheids is situated in the centre in the form of a large single band. The metaxylem is in the middle with two opposite protoxylem points, surrounded by phloem, consisting of sieve cells and parenchyma.
The petiole tissue macerated with 20% nitric acid shows an abundance of fibres of varying lengths (Fig.11 A & B) and parenchymatous cells. The xylem consists of quite long tracheids having annular simple pits (Fig.11 C) and spiral thickenings (Fig. 11 D).
Measurement of isolated cells (microns)
Tracheids (Length) 482.00; 940.00; 1012.00
Fibres (Length) 552.00; 779.00; 1123.00
Pinna
The upper and lower surfaces are glabrous with scattered anomocytic ston present on lower surface only (Fig.5). The stomatal number ranges from 12 with a mean value of 10. The epidermal cells are much more in length have wavy outlines (Fig. 4 & 5). A transverse section of pinna shows sin thin upper and lower epidermal layers with only 2-3 seriate loosely arrar chlorenchyma present in between. Vascular areas show 4-7 xylery elemi surrounded by phloem (Fig. 9 & 10).

I Macerated leaf tissue shows an abundance of epidermal parenchyma hat irregular outlines and chlorenchyma (Fig.12 B & C). Tracheids are mi shorter and have simple pits (Fig.12A).
Measurement of isolated cells (microns) I
Tracheids (Length) 94.00; 100.00; 106.00 I
Epidermal Cells 12.0 x 79.0; 18.0 x 69.0; 19.0 x 88.0
Chlorenchyma 31.0 x 63.0; 67.0 x 71.0; 43.0 75.0

Powdered drug
The powder is dark brownish green in colour, homogenous, a bit fluffy! texture. It gives a slight aromatic odour and has no distinguishable taste. The| powder after being cleared in chloral hydrate, was observed under microsi which showed mostly fragments of pinnae and petiole; sporangial wall tissf with characteristic transverse thickenings and triangular spore tetrads.

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