Education in Indian systems of medicine Reviewed by Momizat on . Education Master The Union Government through various pieces of legislation has streamlined education in parallel systems of medicine from time to time. The Gov Education Master The Union Government through various pieces of legislation has streamlined education in parallel systems of medicine from time to time. The Gov Rating: 0
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Education in Indian systems of medicine

Education in Indian systems of medicine

Education Master

The Union Government through various pieces of legislation has streamlined education in parallel systems of medicine from time to time. The Government of India is committed to promotion of these medical systems to cater to the healthcare needs of the public. It has constituted Central Council of Indian medicine (CCIM), a statutory body, under the ‘Indian Medicine Central Council Act 1970’. The Act lays down standards of medical education in Ayurved, Siddha and Unani through its various regulations.
Similarly, Homoeopathy medical education is being monitored by Central Council of Homoeopathy (CCH) through various regulations under the ‘Homoeopathy Central Council Act, 1973. For medical education in Yoga & Naturopathy, no such governing body exists.
Under Graduate Education

A department was established in 1995for Indian systems of medicine and homoeopathy. Ever since, there has been a steady rise in the number of AYUSH colleges in the country both quantitatively and qualitatively.
There were 508 colleges conducting undergraduate AYUSH education with an admission capacity of 25,586 students in India as on April 1, 2012.

Out of which, 21.1 per cent of the total colleges with 17.3 per cent intake capacity belong to Government Sector. About 51.2 per cent of the colleges with 40.8 per cent admission capacity were of Ayurveda whereas about 36.4 per cent of the colleges with 48.1 per cent admission capacity belong to Homoeopathy. However, about 8.1 per cent of the colleges with 7.2 per cent admission capacity pertain to Unani system. Remaining 4.4 per cent of the colleges with 4.0 per cent admission capacity pertain to Siddha and Naturopathy systems of medicine.

Till April 1, 2012, only 24 states and Union territories were imparting medical education at under graduate level. Maharashtra had a lead over other states with maximum number of AYUSH colleges (22.8 per cent) and also maximum number of Ayurveda (23.8 per cent) and Homoeopathy (25.9 per cent) colleges in the country. Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu had the maximum number of Unani (26.8 per cent) and Naturopathy (28.6 per cent) colleges respectively. As Siddha system of medicine is widely practiced in the state of Tamil Nadu, 87.5 per cent of the Siddha colleges hail from this State.

It has been observed that there is lack of AYUSH colleges in the North-Eastern States and the Union Territories.
There was no AYUSH college in the states of Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, and Tripura and in the Union territories of Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep and Puducherry as on April 1, 2012. Apart from this, there were no Ayurvedic college in the state of Arunachal Pradesh and no Homoeopathic Graduate College in the state of Jammu & Kashmir. Colleges imparting Unani medical education existed in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal only. Siddha colleges existed in the states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu only. Medical education in Naturopathy was being imparted in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Karnataka Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
Average annual growth rate of 3.9 per cent and 5.5 per cent were observed in AYUSH colleges imparting under graduate courses and their admission capacity respectively during 1992-2012. Maximum of 13.8 per cent annual growth was observed in 1993-94 in AYUSH colleges while maximum of 26 per cent annual growth was observed in admission capacity of total colleges in 1999-2000. Average annual growth rates of 4.7 per cent, 2.4 per cent, 7.6 per cent, 3.0 per cent and 8.4 per cent had been attained in Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homoeopathy and Naturopathy colleges respectively during 1992-2012, while the admission capacities under these systems had grown annually by 4.8, 4.2, 4.5, 6.4 and 12.5 per cent respectively.
The maximum annual growth rates of 21.1, 19.4, 30.4 and 66.7 per cent were realised in the number of colleges of Ayurveda, Unani, Homoeopathy and Naturopathy in 1992-93, 1999-2000, 1993-94 and 1997-98 respectively. Siddha colleges augmented 2.1 times in the year 2003 over 2001. Maximum annual growth rates of 20.4%, 25.3 per cent, 60.0 per cent and 41.6 per cent were realized in the admission capacities of colleges of Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy in 2002-03, 1995-96, 2001-02 and 1999-2000 respectively. Admission capacity of Naturopathy colleges increased 1.7 times in 2011 over 2010.
Over the period 1992 to 2012, admission capacity had increased significantly (more than one and half times) with an average admission capacity of 37 per college in 1992, it had gone up to 50 per College in 2012. There is no change in the average admission capacity for Ayurveda Colleges during 1992 to 2012 i.e. 40 students per college. However, intake capacity of Unani Colleges has gone up from 33 in 1992 to 45 in 2012.
Similarly, the average admission capacities of Homoeopathy and Naturopathy Colleges had increased from 36 and 23 in 1992 to 67 and 47 in 2012 respectively. However, the average admission capacity of Siddha Colleges had gone down from 75 in 1992 to 44 in 2012. The maximum intake capacity of 57 per AYUSH College was realised during the year 2008. The maximum intake capacities of Ayurveda, Unani and Homoeopathy colleges was observed in 2008, whereas, the maximum intake capacities of 78 per Siddha college and 47 per Naturopathy college were observed during the periods 1993¬1997 and 2012 respectively.
States and Union territories having higher (greater than or equal to 60 students) average admission capacities for all the AYUSH colleges in 2012 were Delhi, Gujarat Maharashtra and Himachal Pradesh, whereas, states with low (less than 40 students) average admission capacities in 2012 were Bihar, Orissa and Chandigarh. The state of Jammu & Kashmir had the maximum average admission capacity of 90 students per College and Bihar had minimum average admission capacity of 13 students per college in Ayurveda in 2012.
The State of Andhra Pradesh had the maximum average admission capacity of 63 students per Unani College, and Tamil Nadu had the lowest average admission capacity of 26 students per Unani College in 2012. Maximum intake capacity of 95 students per College was observed in the State of Gujarat under Homoeopathy, whereas the lowest of 27 students per College was registered in Orissa. The states of Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Haryana, Jharkhand, Kerala, Uttrakhand and Chandigarh had the same intake capacity of 50 students per college. The state of Andhra Pradesh had the maximum average admission capacity of 60, while Gujarat has the minimum of 30 students per college in Naturopathy.
Post-Graduate Courses under AYUSH
Since the creation of a separate Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homoeopathy in 1995, Post Graduate education had been introduced in a number of existing AYUSH colleges. As on April 1, 2012 there were 123 colleges with admission capacity of 2,709 students imparting post graduate education in India. Out of which 6 colleges exclusively for post graduate course with admission capacity of 216 students.
However, 33.8 per cent colleges with 35.1 per cent admission capacity pertain to Government Sector. 59.0 per cent of total post graduate colleges with 59.7 per cent of total admission capacity were of Ayurveda whereas 34.2 per cent colleges with 32.8 per cent of admission capacity belonged to Homoeopathy. Only 6.8 per cent of the post graduate colleges with 7.5 per cent admission capacity belonged to other systems of AYUSH.
Out of all medical colleges imparting post graduate AYUSH education, six colleges with admission capacity of 216 students were exclusively post graduate institutions. One exclusive post graduate college each of Unani and Siddha systems with admission capacities of 38 and 46 existed in the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu respectively, whereas, two exclusive post graduate Ayurveda college each with admission capacities of 50 and 10 existed in the states of Gujarat and West Bengal. Two exclusive post graduate Homoeopathy College each with admission capacities of 36 and 36 were in the states of Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh respectively.
There was a surge in demand for post graduate education in AYUSH systems and to meet it, the facility of getting medical education at post graduate level is available in 17 states. Maharashtra had maximum number of AYUSH colleges (35.0 per cent), it had also maximum numbers of Ayurveda (34.8 per cent), Homoeopathy (37.5 per cent) and Unani (40 per cent) postgraduate colleges. whereas only one state Tamil Nadu had Siddha postgraduate college. Neither the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Haryana, Jharkhand, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura nor any of the union territories of India except NCT of Delhi had a single postgraduate AYUSH college. Apart from these, the state of Tamil Nadu had no Ayurveda Postgraduate college and the states of Assam, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand had no Homoeopathy college. The colleges imparting Unani medical education existed in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh only. Postgraduate education in Siddha existed in the State of Tamil Nadu only.
Average annual growth rate of 5.7 per cent was registered in 2012 over 1993 in post graduate AYUSH colleges and admission capacity had grown 8.9%. Average annual growth rates of 4.5, 5.2 and 6.3 per cent had been attained in the number of colleges of Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha respectively during the period 1993 to 2012.
However, within the same period, admission capacities under Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha had grown annually by 7.1, 4.1 and 9.7 per cent respectively. Average annual growth rates of Homoeopathy Colleges and their admission capacities had been observed as 8.6 per cent and 17.5 per cent respectively during the period 1993 to 2012. The maximum of 45.5, 66.7, 100 and 50 per cent annual growths had been realized in the number of colleges of Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy in 1999-2000, 2000-01, 1999-2000 and 1999-2000 respectively. Maximum annual growth rates of 23.0 and 37.5 per cent were realised in the admission capacities of Ayurveda and Unani colleges in the years 2001-02 and 1993-94 respectively. Admission capacities increased by 3 times in case of Siddha in the year 1999-2000 and more than 1.5 times in case of Homoeopathy colleges in the year 2001-02 over their previous years.

Over the period 1992 to 2012, average admission capacity has increased significantly (about 1.5 times), with an average admission capacity of 15 per college in 1992, it had gone up to 21 per college in 2012. An increasing trend had been observed in the admission capacity of Ayurveda, as average admission capacity for Ayurveda colleges had increased from 14 in 1992 to 21 per college in 2012. However, the intake capacity of Homoeopathy colleges had grown at a faster rate during the period 1993-2012, which had been up from 5 per college in 1993 to 20 students per college in 2012.

Similarly, the intake capacity of Siddha colleges had been up from 20 in 1992 to 35 per college in 2012. However, in case of Unani system, the average admission capacities had gone down from 16 in 1992 to 9 in 2005, then increased to 16 students per college in 2012. The maximum intake capacity of 23 per AYUSH College was realized in 2010. The maximum intake capacities of 22 per Ayurveda college, 20 per Unani college, 45 per Siddha college and 34 per Homoeopathy college were realised during 2012, 1993, 2002-2004 and 2005 respectively.

States of Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Bihar and Rajasthan were having higher (more than 25) average admission capacities, whereas, states of Orissa (7) and Delhi (5) were having low (less than 10) average admission capacities. Rajasthan had maximum average admission capacity of 46 students per college in AYUSH. However, for individual stream; Rajasthan had maximum average admission capacity (74 students per college) in Ayurveda, while Orissa had minimum average admission capacity of 4 students per college. In case of Unani college; Andhra Pradesh had the maximum average admission capacity (34 students per college), while Uttar Pradesh had minimum average admission capacity (2 students per college). Maximum intake capacity of 318 students per college had been observed in the state of Maharashtra, whereas, minimum of 4 students in Delhi under Homoeopathy. Andhra Pradesh had maximum intake capacity of 34 students per college under Unani College. Tamil Nadu had intake capacity of 105 students per college under Siddha.

Paramedical Education:
For conducting Para-medical education under various systems of AYUSH, there had been 66 institutions with admission capacity of 2505 students as on 01.04.2012. 50% institutions with 47.9% admission capacity belong to Government sector, whereas, 3% institutions with 2.8% admission capacity were owned by local bodies and 47% institutions with 49.3% admission capacity being managed by private sector. Out of these 66 institutions, 29 institutions of Rajasthan with admission capacity of 1180 are imparting training courses in Ayurveda, In rest of the 37 institutions imparting paramedical education with 1325 admission capacity, 67.6 per cent institutions with 76.2 per cent admission capacity were of Ayurveda, whereas 18.9 and 8.1 per cent institutions with 20.0 and 2.6 per cent admission capacity were of Homoeopathy and Unani respectively. Only, 5.4 per cent institutions with admission capacities of 1.1 per cent were of Siddha.

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